a Daedalochila or a Lobosculum?
by Harry G. Lee
Recently I caught myself
making an egregious misidentification on a smallish land snail taken
from a leaf litter sample harvested by Henry McCullagh in eastern
Arkansas. I had diagnosed "Inflectarius inflectus (Say, 1821)
with a conspicuous buttress like a Stenotrema." It took a couple
of weeks to sink in that the shell was actually that of Lobosculum
leporinum (Gould, 1848: 39) Gulf Coast Liptooth. Here are the
original description <http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/35741#page/47/mode/1up>
the first illustration (Binney, 1857: plate 40a, figs. 1; see image
Interestingly, Gould considered this species "intermediate between"
H. hirsuta Say, 1817, which has a buttress; see
(as Stenotrema; this
shell feature demonstrated in fig. D1, image below right,
upper arrow) and H. inflecta (my
misidentification; see <http://www.jaxshells.org/814f.htm> as Inflectarius).
Binney, 1857: plate 40a, figs.1
The unraveling of this confusion exposes us to some unusual
nomenclatorial and taxonomic situations. Our topical shell clearly has
close affinities with Lobosculum [TS Helix pustula
Férussac, 1832 SD Pilsbry, 1930: 319; see <http://www.jaxshells.org/lobo.htm>].
Nonetheless, based on its lack
of a penial appendage, Emberton (1988) was the first to transfer this
species to Daedalochila Beck (1837: 21) [TS Polygyra
auriculata Say, 1818: 277-278 SD Herrmannsen (1847: 369 <http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40627#page/417/mode/1up>;], an interesting placement on conchological grounds as the labral lamella lacks the exclusive generic
character, the "uvula" of Shuttleworth; see
(1940: 607) was aware of the genital deficiency in this species but
to be a convergent character and grouped the Férussac taxon with Lobosculum rather than Daedalochila.
Emberton was dedicated to an unbiased cladistic approach and apparently
wasn't able to factor in Pilsbry's hypothesis.
Getting a handle on the type species of Lobosculum requires an
immersion in one of the more Byzantine Nineteenth Century conchological
works, that of Andre Étienne Just Pascal Joseph François d’Audebard,
Baron de Férussac, to whom this species, Helix pustula, is
attributed. The description consists of (1) the figures (Férussac, 1822:
plate 50, figs. 1; vidi, but subsequently removed from on-line
access) and (2) the plate explanation (Férussac, 1832 Tome 1:
78), neither by itself constituting a nomenclatorial action. Many
authors, e.g., Pilsbry (loc. cit.) mistakenly concluded
that the two publications were concurrent and cited 1822 as the date of
description for this and many other taxa actually not made available
until later publication by the author. Not affecting our species, but
impacting lots of others is a similar misunderstanding of the Baron's
convoluted work: many of the new taxa he proposed in a related work the
preceding year (Férussac, 1821) were incorrectly characterized by
Sherborn (1922-1932) as "n[omina]. n[uda]." Sherborn overlooked the fact
that most of them were made available when the companion plates, along
with those of work involving H. pustula, appeared a decade later.
Most of the blame for these misinterpretations of the context (Férussac
and Deshayes, 1819-1851) can be attributed to the rarity of the work and
chronology of its publication (vide infra for discussion and
collation). That detraction is greatly offset by the generally very
well-executed figures, far above the standard of the day. Unfortunately,
as with many of the smaller species, those of H. pustula are not
of the exquisite caliber of the majority, yet the similarity between
H. pustula Férussac and H. leporina Gould is quite evident.
Back to the Twentieth Century
.... the vernacular name provided by
Fred Thompson (in Turgeon, Quinn, et al., 1998), may prove less
mutable than its scientific counterpart. I ask the reader to determine
its proper generic placement based on the evidence presented here;
it appears that my hasty nomination of Inflectarius should be
withdrawn from the slate of contenders.
(b) Arkansas, from Bland
(c) Cedar Point, Mobile Bay
(d, e) Frierson, LA
Pilsbry, 1940: page
612 , fig. 391
Beck, H., 1837-1838. Index Molluscorum praesentis aevis Musei
Principis Augustissimi Christiani Frederici. Copenhagen. [1837: pp.
1-100; 1838: pp. 101-124; 1-8].
Binney, A. [ed. A.A. Gould], 1857. The
terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States and the
adjacent territories of North America. vol. 3. Little Brown, Boston.
pp. 6-40 + 84 pls. [1-74 +10 bis; recto: majority hand-colored; verso:
uncolored duplicates of recto, except pl. 71 verso only; total 167;
several artists and engravers].
Emberton, K.C., 1988. The genitalic, allozymic, and conchological
evolution of the eastern North American Triodopsinae (Gastropoda:
Pulmonata: Polygyridae). Malacologia 28: 159-287.
Férussac [A.E.J.P.J.F. d’A.], Baron de, 1821. Tableaux
systématiques des animaux mollusques classés en familles naturelles,
dans lesquels on a établi la concordance de tous les systèmes; suivis
d’un prodrome général pour tous les mollusques terrestres ou fluviatiles,
vivants ou fossils. [Premiere Partie Tableaux systématiques généraux de
l’embranchemant divisés en familles naturelles] Deuxième partie
(premiere section.). Tableaux particuliers des mollusques terrestres et
fluviatiles, présentant pour chaque famille les genres et espèces qui la
composent. Bertrand, Paris. [i]-xlvii + [i] + -27 + -110 + [i].
This monograph forms a part of the author's larger work, Férussac and
Deshayes, 1819-1851; vide infra.
¹ ² Férussac, A.E.J.P.J.F. d’A. de and G.-P. Deshayes, 1819-1851.
Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des mollusques terrestres
et fluviatiles, tant des espèces que l'on trouve aujourd'hui vivantes,
que des dépouilles fossiles de celles qui n'existent plus; classés
d'après les caractères essentiels que présentent ces animaux et leurs
coquilles. J.-B. Bailliere, Paris. Tome 1: 8 + 184 pp [not seen];
Tome 2 (1): 402 p.; Tome 2 (2): 260 + 22 + 16 pp; ³ Atlas 1 (Tome 3):
pls. 1- 70; º Atlas 2 (Tome 4): pls. 71-166 + pls. 1-5.
Gould, A.A., 1848. Untitled [Shells collected by Mr. J. Bartlett,
in the south-western States, for the late Dr. Binney ...].
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 3: 37-41.
Herrmannsen, A.N., 1846-1847. Indicis Generum Malacozoorum
Primordia, Nomina subgenerum, generum .... vol. 1. Theodor Fischer,
Cassell. pp. i-xxvii + 1-637. Sept. 1-July 17 (in 6 parts)
Pilsbry, H.A., 1930. Anatomy and relationships of some American
Helicidae and Polygyridae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia 82: 303-327 [not seen]
Pilsbry, H.A., 1940. Land Mollusca of North America (north of
Mexico) vol. 1 part 2. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. vi
+ 575-994 + ix. 1 Aug.
Say, T., 1818. Account of two new genera and several new species,
of fresh water and land shells. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia 1(2): 276-284. July.
Sherborn, C.D., 1922-32. Index animalium sive index nominum
quae ab A. D. MDCCLVIII generibus et speciebus animalium imposita sunt.
Sectio secunda. A Kalendis Ianuariis, MDCCCI usque ad finem Decembris,
MDCCCL. Longsmans, Green, & Co. and British Museum (Natural
History), London. cxxxi + 7,056 pp.
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan,
E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E.
Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione,
and J.D. Williams, 1998. Common and
scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and
Canada: mollusks, 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Special
Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland. ix + pp. 1-509 + 16 pls. (unpaginated).
¹ This work
appeared in many livraisons/Lieferungen. In the period 1819-1832, 28
livraisons appeared, consisting of texts and plates, not necessarily
connected with each other. Many plate numbers appeared twice. Covers
usually had no important texts or names printed on them. Explanations of
plates 1-47 were published in livraison 9 (6 Apr., 1821), explanation of
included plates on the cover in livraison 17 (2 Nov., 1822), explanation
of plates on the cover of livraisons 22-27 (4 Aug., 1832 - serious error
in Bouchet & Rocroi 2005: 305: "4 August 1823" is a misprint for "4
August 1832") (species were printed in small caps in these lists, with
references to corresponding numbers in Prodr. [italics]). When the whole
work was finished, a final issue of plate explanations appeared (1851,
species names were in normal and bold font, authors not bold, no
references to Prodr.). Usually only the final plate explanations were
bound, while the initial plate explanations, different from the final
ones, were not conserved by librarians.
Title, préface pp (i)-xvi (6 Mar., 1819)
pp 1-16 (5 Jun., 1819)
pp 17-56 (10 Jul., 1819)
pp 57-72 (18 Sep., 1819)
pp 73-96 (4 Dec., 1819)
pp 97-128 (17 Jun., 1820)
explanation of plates 1-47 (6 Apr 1821)
explanation of plates 48, 53, 63, 75A, 75B, 113 (2 Nov., 1822)
pp 96a-96[lambda] (27 Sep., 1823)
explanation of plates of livraisons 22-27 (many plates, 4 Aug. 1832)
explanation of plates 8E, 126, 131B, 133, 141, 147 (4 Aug., 1832 ?)
(cover not conserved in London but should have existed)
Plates (uncaptioned): 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 (6 Mar., 1819); 3, 5-7, 11, 13 (5
Jun., 1819); 9, 15-17, 19, 23 (18 Sept., 1819); 14, 18, 20, 22, 24, 25
(4 Dec., 1819); 21, 21A, 26-28, 30 (26 Feb., 1820); 29, 30-34, 57 (17
June, 1820); 52, 75, "66"[=76], 91, 92, 103 (5 Aug., 1820); 8A, 39A, 54,
73, 112, 120 (6 Apr., 1821); 32B, "101"[=51B], 63A,114, 115, 159 (26
May, 1821); 11A, 21B, 32A, 35, 39, 44 (13 July, 1821); 36, 38, 46, 81,
108, 118 (21 Sept., 1821); 9A, 37, 40, 41, 43, 62 (10 Nov., 1821); the
others by Férussac in 1822 and 1823..
Plates issued by Deshayes:
pl. 8F, 10A, 17A, 28A, 29A, 69C, 73B, 83, 84, 106, 107, 129 (1839)
pl. 10B, 62A, 69B, 69D-69H, 69K, 72, 85, 86 (1840)
pl. 37A, 55 , 62B, 64A, 69I, 69J, 75C, 87, 89 , 90 , 127A, 127B
The above collation is based on Bouchet and Rocroi (2005: 304), Kennard
(1942:1-4), and Gittenberger and Groh (1986) and is posted at <http://www.animalbase.uni-goettingen.de/zooweb/servlet/AnimalBase/home/reference?id=145>
There is a curious text version of the above work at <http://books.google.com/books?id=6hBQAAAAcAAJ&pg=RA1-PA162&lpg=RA1-PA162&dq=Achatina+%22Histoire+naturelle+g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale+et+particuli%C3%A8re+des+mollusques+terrestres+et+fluviatiles%22&source=bl&ots=aqQTairPi7&sig=2Ye8n-BrB0uIkJbqN7CW8ORvNA4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XqKuT-3dIIjc9ASH2rnhCA&ved=0CFgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false>. It has an 1819 title page and is comprised of "Tome I" [? Tome 2 (2)]
beginning with a préface [pp (i)-xvi] followed by (1)-184, but having
are many, many pages no. 96 (various sub-pagination indicators, e.g.
96a, 96b, etc.) and "Tome II" [? Tome 2 (2)], which runs from (1) to p.
³ Atlas 1 (Tome 3) with plates 1-69K (69, 69A, etc. yielding 12 pl. 69's
and lots of other A's and B's; plate 70 missing, perhaps missed in the
scanning process) is posted at <http://books.google.com/books/about/Histoire_naturelle_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale_et_particu.html?id=-L4YtwAACAAJ>.
º Atlas 2 (Tome 4) is posted at <http://books.google.com/books?id=JolDAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false> and contains plates 71 to 166 [with multiple A's and B's] + fossil
plates 1 to 5 + (1)-22 [explication des planches; cross-referenced to
indicate that there are 247 plates in toto] + ii, unpaginated [errata
emended version of the Férussac masterwork collation can be found on pp.
2-4 at <http://jaxshells.org/pdfs/julaug18.pdf>.