Fort Caroline National Memorial (Theodore Roosevelt Hiking Area) - Jacksonville, Florida

Timucuan Visitor Center Sign

St. Johns Bluff Sign  The Fort Caroline National Memorial and adjacent Theodore Roosevelt Hiking Area, located near the intersection of Ft. Caroline and Mt. Pleasant Roads in the St. Johns Bluff area of southeast Jacksonville, offers four nature trails totaling about five miles. The area has an interesting history which dates to 1562 when French explorers led by Jean Ribault first surveyed the area. The French subsequently established "La Caroline" in 1564. In 1565, five-hundred Spanish troops led by Admiral Pedro Menendez marched north from what is now St. Augustine and captured the French installation - ultimately killing most of its inhabitants. Menendez and his troops are believed to have camped at a freshwater pond nearby which is now known as "Spanish Pond" from which one of the trails derives its name.

Discussion:  The Ft. Caroline/St. Johns bluff area, like most areas of Duval County, is fast being over-run by urban development. Fortunately for those of us interested in terrestrial mollusks, 30 of the 89 species thus far recorded from northeast Florida have been found at Ft. Caroline. However, this fast encroaching development may ultimately have an impact on this molluscan community. A list of the species found at Ft. Caroline is presented below. This listing is the result of two surveys conducted in 1976 (10/31/76 and 11/28/76), two surveys in March, 2005, one survey in September, 2006, and multiple surveys in October-November, 2007. Those species preceded by "+" were found both in 1976 and 2005. The survey is continuing and the listing will be updated as is appropriate.

Reconstructed Fort Caroline


  • Helicina (Olygyra) orbiculata (Say, 1818) Globular Drop (10/2007)
  • Leidyula floridana (Leidy, 1851) Florida Leatherleaf (9/25/2008)
  • Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
  • +Strobilops aeneus Pilsbry, 1926 Bronze Pinecone
  • Strobilops texasianus Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906 Southern Pinecone
  • Succinea unicolor Tryon, 1866 Squatty Ambersnail
  • Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc, 1802) Carolina Mantleslug (11/3/2007 - juvenile)
  • Helicodiscus notius notius Hubricht, 1962 Tight Coil
  • Helicodiscus parallelus (Say, 1821) Compound Coil (3/20/2005)
  • +Glyphyalinia solida (H. B. Baker, 1930) Imperforate Glyph
  • Glyphyalinia umbilicata (Singley in Cockerell, 1893) Texas Glyph
  • Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) Southeast Gem
  • Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem(10/2007)
  • +Nesovitrea dalliana (Pilsbry and Simpson, 1888) Depressed Glass
  • Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate (9/1/2006)
  • Ventridens cerinoideus (Anthony, 1865) Wax Dome
  • Ventridens volusiae (Pilsbry, 1900) Seminole Dome
  • +Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss
  • Euconulus trochulus (Reinhart, 1883) Silk Hive (11/11/2007)
  • Guppya gundlachii (L. Pfeiffer, 1840) Glossy Granule(10/2007)
  • +Euglandina rosea (Férussac, 1821) Rosy Wolfsnail
  • Daedalochila auriculata (Say, 1818) Ocala Liptooth
  • +Lobosculum pustula (Férussac, 1832) Grooved Liptooth
  • Polygyra cereolus (Mühlfeld, 1816) Southern Flatcoil
  • +Polygyra septemvolva Say, 1818 Florida Flatcoil
  • Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth, 1852) Magnolia Threetooth
  • Allopeas gracile (Hutton, 1834) Graceful Awlsnail introduced species
  • Lamellaxis micrus (d'Orbigny, 1835) Tiny Awlsnail (10/2007) introduced species
  • Opeas pyrgula Schmaker and Boettger, 1891 Sharp Awlsnail (10/2007) introduced species
  • Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821) Asian Trampsnail (8/2008) introduced species